Non-NPM Reforms in Developing Countries
Non-NPM reforms in developing countries is a one indicator of administrative reform’s challenges in developing countries. Here we can find five indicators. These are:-
- Accountability and Transparency in Developing Countries
- Capacity Building in Developing Countries
- Reforms in Financial management
- Ethics and Corruption
- Issues of reform Implementation & evaluation
These five indicators of non-NPM reforms are described below shortly for better understanding. Let’s see the indicators.
Accountability and Transparency in Developing Countries:
Accountability and transparency are critical and essential elements of democratic institutions and processes. The challenges faced by public administration is to overcome the traditional culture in the public institutions as well as the pressure groups. In spite of such challenges, some progress has been made for safeguarding transparency and accountability.
It is evident that developing countries are comparatively weak in adopting accountability and transparency measures; however, the Right to Information Act implemented in India and several other developing nations is a welcome step in ensuring transparency and accountability in public sector.
Capacity Building in Developing Countries:
Technology change and globalization made public sector agencies to adapt to overcome the challenges. These transformations urged them to improve their capacity and capability.
In order to introduce NPM type reforms, these countries have to develop their capacity at par with the western world. The imported reforms promoted by donor agencies in developing countries often failed due to the peculiar circumstances prevailing in these countries . This proved that reforms must be home-grown, demand and government driven, carefully thought out and mutually consistent.
Reforms in Financial management:
Changes in financial reporting, development of market oriented management systems and structures that can deal with pricing and provision of public services, development of performance measurement approach , the devolution of budgets , internal and external audits and reviews of service efficiency and effectiveness are the key elements of financial reforms. Strong and positive relationship exists between the financial sector and economic development.
Many developing countries including India had attempted to improve their financial systems by introducing changes in budgeting. Better/efficient financial systems makes countries grow faster. Even with many challenges, these countries are trying to improve their financial management systems drawing inspiration from the practices adopted in many of the developed countries.
Ethics and Corruption:
Developing countries face frequent ethics violation and corrupt practices in the government sectors. The recent global corruption report published by the Transparency International highlighted many scandals especially in the developing and less developed countries.
Transparency, accountability, capacity building, financial management reform and ethics and corruption has shown that the developing countries have registered only limited successes on this front. Constraints like social, political and bureaucratic situations prevailing in these countries definitely stand as an impediment for such reforms compared to the developed world.
Issues of reform Implementation & evaluation in developing countries:
Reforms failed in developing countries due to poor implementation. Various donor agencies have provided financial assistance to developing countries and thus enabled implementation of reforms.
Centralization, dependency culture, poor institutional capacity, poor accountability, massive corruption and demoralized public services are the major factors affecting the performance of reform in these countries.
The discussion in this assignment shows that many developing countries had started the reform programs in which some of the concepts of New Public Management (NPM) were introduced. It can be seen that some countries started the reform programmes in the light of the new public management perspective, some adopted elements of it, and yet some others undertook these reforms independent of the NPM label. Scholars are in agreement that the NPM reforms practiced by the developed world need to be carefully reviewed to accommodate social, cultural, political and administrative factors before implementing them in these countries.