Nature determination is very important in any discussion. So, scholars have become into two groups to determine the nature of public administration. From the two perspectives, they have explained the nature of public administration. There are mentioned two doctrines. Such as:-
- Integral Approach
- Managerial Approach
Public administration is the principles or activities which are for people’s welfare. Leonard Dupee White, William Franklin Willoughby, Woodrow Wilson, Marshall Edward Dimock, etc. are the pioneers or supporters of this doctrine. They believe that all individuals (from top to bottom) belong to administration. So, the combined initiative needs to lead an administration.
The pioneers or supporters of this doctrine are Luther Halsey Gulick, Henri Fayol, Felix A. Nigro, etc. They believe that all actions of the administration, for example, coordination, controlling, managing, etc. includes under managerial approach. In administration, management-related peoples do the work and their works are the main responsibility.
In determining the nature of public administration, Felix A. Nigro has delivered his own opinion very nicely. He delivers the following things. Such as:-
- Closely related to government
- Coordinating initiative
- Related with human theory
- Active participation
- Human welfare, and
- Finally, rational contribution
Policy Making and Implementation:
American writer James W. Fesler has researched at different times to determine the nature of public administration. According to his research, the actual nature of public administration has cleared to us. In other words, he believes that…
Public administration is policy formulation and policy implementation.
Fesler especially considers on policy formulation than policy implementation. Because he thinks that policy implementation will fail if policy formulation is improper. He says to discuss detail, before making the law through legislative accordance with the constitution. Public administration is a government administration. So, its work is done for human welfare. Profit generating doesn’t its main purpose. Its purpose and ideal should be stood on behalf of maximum social and state welfare. Public administration walks to keep people’s interests. So, bureaucrats have to transparent and accountable in work for people’s interests. The government should be neutral to administration, although that government is political government.
After that, Fesler says to implement the policy after policymaking. His opinion that making a decision on a paper is the phase of policy determination. If those decisions don’t implement properly, it will valueless.
Nature of Public Administration (Dimock & Dimock)
Marshall E. Dimock and Gladys O. Dimock have identified several elements to determine the nature of public administration. Such as:-
The organization plays a vital rule to systematically and properly execute the administrative work. Through the organization distributes authority and responsibility. The organization is a stable part of the administration. That is to say, it is compared with the medical science of anatomy from an administrative perspective.
The personnel needs to activate any organization. The personnel is the driving force to achieve the purpose of the organization. So, personnel appointments and management are the dynamic directions of the administration.
Equipment and Supplies:
The organization needs a place, building or home and furniture to keep working. The personnel needs paper, pen, documents, type machine, and different stationeries elements. Therefore, these elements have to supply regularly.
Procedure and Method:
Properly leading the administrative work has to take special procedures and methods. The personnel takes suitable training to implement these procedures. Meanwhile, it is required to amend or change these procedures and methods.
Finance is the driving force of all work. Finance needs to lead government officials and organizations for a specific purpose. So, required grants, supplies, expenditure methods, and proper management of finance accelerate the administrative structure to success.
Controlling is essential to lead the administration in an actual goal. Administrative controlling may be two types, for example, internal controlling and external controlling. Through external control, people want to know the nature of public administration related situations. As a result, administrative management is able to give the identity of responsibly working with honesty, uprightness, etc.
Finally, we can say that the nature of public administration is gradually changing and evaluating. The more modern states take welfare programs, the more nature of public administration and activities are changing. Public administration is interacting with the different new things to keep abreast of the state activities. Therefore, determining the nature of public administration is so tough.