Modern Public Administration Paradigms
Public administration is a government policy implementation. And the academic discipline that studies this implementation and preparedness of civil servants for public service work. Public administration has sound paradigms. Its paradigm is two types. One Traditional Public Administration (TPA) Paradigms and other modern public administration paradigms. This article will discuss the modern public administration paradigm.
Modern Public Administration Paradigms:
There are mentioned the Modern Public Administration Paradigms. Here will be no broad discussion; point out for coding the main concept. Such as:-
- New Public Administration (NPA)
- New Public Management (NPM)
- Reinventing Government
- New Public Services (NPS)
- Total Quality Management (TQM)
- Post-Modern Public Administration
- Public Choice Theory
- Good Governance
New Public Administration (NPA):
The New Public Administration (NPA) has emerged from the Minnowbrook Conference in 1968. It was inspired by Dwight Waldo who brought together young administrators and scholars to discuss the crucial issues and varying perspectives of public administration.
New Public Management (NPM):
David Osborne & Ted Gaebler are the father of New Public Management (NPM). This concept was coded in their book of Reinventing Government – How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. There are included some key points which are most important in new public management (NPM). Such as:-
- The individual responsibility of the manager or administrator has been more significant.
- Creating flexibility and dynamic of organizational structure, staffs and job conditions.
- Spontaneously identified the organization and employee’s aims and purposes.
- Ensured 3Es (Economy, Efficiency & Effectiveness)
- Government activities should be formed market-oriented. Public administration is not only dealt with bureaucratic complexity but flexibility also.
- Government activities should be adequate.
David Osborne & Ted Gaebler are the father of Reinventing Government. This concept was coded in their book of Reinventing Government – How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. There are included the 10 (ten) principles which are most important in Reinventing Government. Such as:-
- Catalytic government: Steering rather than rowing
- Community-owned government: Empowering rather than serving
- Competitive government: Injecting competition into service delivery
- Mission-driven government: Transforming rule-driven organizations
- Results-oriented government: Funding outcomes, not inputs
- Customer-driven government: Meeting the needs of the customer, not their bureaucracy
- Enterprising government rather than spending
- Anticipatory government: Prevention rather than cure
- Decentralized government: From hierarchy to participation and teamwork
- Market-oriented government: Leveraging change through the market
New Public Services (NPS):
Janet V. Denhardt & Robert B. Denhardt are provided with this concept by their book of The New Public Service – Serving, not steering. There are seven principles. Such as:-
- Serve rather than steer
- Serve citizens; not customer
- Seek the public interest
- Think strategically; act democratically
- Value people; not just productivity
- Value citizenship over entrepreneurship
- Recognize that accountability is not simple
Total Quality Management (TQM):
W. Edwards Deming is made the concept of TQM. He provided 14 points on TQM. Total Quality Management (TQM) is the management framework by which ensures the long-term customer satisfaction by improving work culture, process system, etc. It proposed by Edwards Deming. It has five principles. Such as:-
- Management’s commitment
- Focus on the customer and the employee
- Focus on fact
- Continuous improvement (KAIZEN: KAI = change & ZEN = improvement); in KAIZEN has a circle. That named is PDCA. PDCA = Plan, Do, Check & Act
- Everybody participation
Post-Modern Public Administration:
In this modern paradigm of public administration, tries to use democratic values instead of bureaucratic values. Because bureaucratic organizations never are neutral. As a result, one group fulfills their demands, and another is detached from it.
So, administrators try to ensure the “facts and truth level” in their administrative activities through installing the democratic organization.
Public Choice Theory:
James Buchanan is a Novel Prize winner for contribution on “Public Choice Theory”. Public Choice Theory is one of Modern Public Administration Paradigms. He focuses on two main things. Such as:-
- Self Interest
- Utility Maximization
Good governance form with several features. There are included eight features that are recognized by most of all. Such as:-
- Rule of law
- Efficiency & effectiveness
Gartner proposed four phases of e-governance. Such as:-
We can found several types of governance. For instance:-
- G2G (Government-to-Government)
- G2C (Government-to-Customer)
- G2B (Government-to-Business)
- G2E (Government-to-Employee)