Development Administration – 5Is, 4Ps, Model & Subsystems
As an occupational field, public administration is common to all nations, whatever their system of government. Whether monarchical totalitarian, socialist, parliamentary or congressional – presidential all countries require public administration as machinery to put into effect the policies of the government. This administrative system is the product of the society. Social norms and values of a country determine the nature of is public administration. This is why it is difficult to have any universal theory of public administration. However, it often goes in the name of traditional public administration and often development administration in the current literature.
Development Administration (DA):
Development administration plays the role of changing agent through proper handling of socio-political, administrative and economic dynamics for the desired end. DA is the name often given the way a country’s government act to fulfil its role in achieving development.
Development administration is thus, a career of innovation values. As the term is commonly used, it embraces the new functions assumed by developing countries on the path of modernization and industrialization.
So for development administration, increase of government’s capacity is necessary. This capacity is expressed through establishment of government units.
Two Aspects of Development Administration:
From the above definition of DA, includes two aspects. Such as:-
- Administration for development
- Development of administration
Both these two sides are interrelated. The essence DA today lies in its capacity to bring about the congruence between the programs designed to change the structure and behavior of various institutions to develop and acceptance for the change and finally to conduct the various activities in a manner which can sustain and support the changed objectives.
It should be noted that like the multiplicity of the concept of development – DA is also multidimensional and it conveys a number of meaning in different context. The conceptual meaning of development administration deeply rooted in the CPA (Comparative Public Administration) movement after World War II. To most of the authors, DA is the byproduct of Comparative Public Administration.
5Is of Development Administration:
Development administration also centers on man – it is not mechanistic but humanistic in nature. Besides the POSDCORB function, it adheres to the importance of five Is (5Is). Such as:-
- Interjection and
4Ps of Development Administration:
According to Dean Donald Stone, development administration is concerned primarily with the tasks and processes of formulating and implementing four Ps (4Ps). Such as:-
- Plan: Some sort of planning is necessary for any change and development in broader perspectives like Five-year plan, Two-year plan etc.
- Policy: It is meant in a little specific perspective than plan. As for example the fiscal policy of one year or every year of any government for development.
- Programme: It is concerned with the material arrangement required for executing development activities.
- Project: It is the specific work under some economic or social development programme such as in any particular irrigation or hydroelectric project in any part of the country.
The content of four Ps (4Ps) varies from purpose to purpose. The plan is an intention or objective in a broader perspective. For example, “To Improve Food Production” is a governmental plan. It is a part of government’s total plan and hence based on the governmental agricultural policy. For increasing food production, the government has to forward on some program.
Systems of Development Administration:
After the programme has been the forwarded government has to identify a specific project to implement the specific programme. However, in terms of a simple input-output model. Development administration can be described in the following way:-
- Goals: Administration which produces growth in GNP improves the quality of life and maintains a cultural identity.
- Output: An effective political and administrative apparatus which can formulate appropriate development plans and implement them with maximum effect on the environment.
- Inputs: Very few resources either physical or human, great aspiration, very little time.
Transportation is characterized by:-
- Constant danger of entropy through overloading the system
- Constant threat of an upset to the homeostatic state, through too many inputs or because the system becomes rigid.
- Inadequate feedback especially through shortage of data or lack of understanding of the need for it.
- Over-elaboration through political demands and
- Failure to understand equifinality.
Subsystem of Development Administration:
Development administration needs to be viewed in terms of five subsystems as like:-
- Goal seeking subsystem
- Technical subsystem
- Social subsystem
- Controlling subsystem
- Environmental interaction subsystem
Development administration always goes hand in hand with development planning which brings about changes in the administration. This changes in the mode of administration has brought about a power struggle between the elected representative as like politician and civil service for deciding key policy issues relating to development administration. Any conceptualization of development administration. Therefore, has the basic problem of accessing the role of each of these contending forces and suggesting an operational model capable of inter-grading these two dominant elements for effective organization of development administration.
In the final analysis, the theory of development administration will depend upon the clarification of the establishment of the roles of the forces operating within various groups, assessment of their potentialities and then the development of a model that establishes the relationships between their respective values and behavior.