As an occupational field, public administration is common to all nations, whatever their system of government. Whether monarchical totalitarian, socialist, parliamentary or congressional – presidential, all countries require public administration as machinery to put into effect the policies of the government. This administrative system is the product of society. Social norms and values of a country determine the nature of is public administration. It is why it is difficult to have any universal theory of public administration. However, it often goes in the name of traditional public administration and regularly development administration in the current literature.
Development Administration (DA):
Development administration (DA) plays the role of changing agent through proper handling of socio-political, administrative, and economic dynamics for the desired end. DA is the name often given the way a country’s government act to fulfill its role in achieving development.
Development administration is thus, a career of innovation values. As the term commonly uses, it embraces the new functions assumed by developing countries on the path of modernization and industrialization.
So for development administration, an increase of government’s capacity is necessary. This capacity expresses through the establishment of government units.
Two Aspects of Development Administration:
From the above definition of DA, includes two aspects. Such as:-
- Administration for development
- Development of administration
Both these two sides are interrelated. The essence DA today lies in its capacity to bring about the congruence between the programs designed to change the structure and behavior of various institutions to develop an acceptance for the change and finally to conduct the multiple activities in a manner which can sustain and support the changed objectives.
It should note that like the multiplicity of the concept of development – DA is also multidimensional, and it conveys some meaning in a different context. The conceptual sense of development administration deeply rooted in the CPA (Comparative Public Administration) movement after World War II. To most of the authors, DA is the byproduct of Comparative Public Administration.
5Is of Development Administration:
Development administration also centers on man – it is not mechanistic but humanistic. Besides the POSDCORB function, it adheres to the importance of five Is (5Is). Such as:-
- Interjection and
4Ps of Development Administration:
According to Dean Donald Stone, development administration is concerned primarily with the tasks and processes of formulating and implementing four Ps (4Ps). Such as:-
- Plan: Some sort of planning is necessary for any change and development in broader perspectives like Five-year plan, Two-year plan, etc.
- Policy: It means in a little specific perspective than plan — for example, the fiscal policy of one year or every year of any government for development.
- Program: It is concerned with the material arrangement required for executing development activities.
- Project: It is the specific work under some economic or social development program such as in any particular irrigation or hydroelectric project in any part of the country.
The content of four Ps (4Ps) varies from purpose to purpose. The plan is an intention or objective in a broader perspective. For example, “To Improve Food Production” is a governmental plan. It is a part of the government’s entire layout and hence based on the governmental agricultural policy. For increasing food production, the government has to forward on some program.
Systems of Development Administration:
After the program has been, the forwarded government has to identify a specific project to implement a particular program. However, in terms of a simple input-output model. Development administration can describe in the following way:-
- Goals: Administration, which produces growth in GNP, improves the quality of life and maintains a cultural identity.
- Output: An effective political and administrative apparatus which can formulate appropriate development plans and implement them with maximum effect on the environment.
- Inputs: Very few resources, either physical or human, high aspiration, very little time.
Transportation is characterized by:-
- The constant danger of entropy through overloading the system
- The constant threat of an upset to the homeostatic state, through too many inputs or because the system becomes rigid.
- Over-elaboration through political demands and
- Failure to understand equifinality.
The subsystem of Development Administration:
The Development administration needs to view in terms of five subsystems. For instance:-
- Goal seeking subsystem
- Technical subsystem
- Social subsystem
- Controlling subsystem
- Environmental interaction subsystem
Development administration always goes hand in hand with development planning, which brings about changes in the administration. This changes in the mode of administration have brought about a power struggle between the elected representative as like politician and civil service for deciding key policy issues relating to development administration. Any conceptualization of development administration. Therefore, it has the fundamental problem of accessing the role of each of these contending forces and suggesting an operational model capable of inter-grading these two dominant elements for the active organization of development administration.
In the final analysis, the theory of development administration will depend upon the clarification of the establishment of the roles of the forces operating within various groups, assessment of their potentialities and then the development of a model that establishes the relationships between their respective values and behavior.